The international search for persons has become a necessary and integral element of the fight against crime in the modern world. Over the years of its existence, this mechanism has been effectively used to identify and assign perpetrators of serious crimes.
History and development of international search
The first attempts at international search for persons were connected with the need to bring perpetrators to justice for crimes committed in other countries. During the development of this mechanism, especially in recent decades, new standards of cooperation between states were introduced, contributing to a more effective fight against transnational crime.
Principles and mechanisms of international search
Principles of international search
- The principle of territorial jurisdiction. It specifies that states have the right to prosecute individuals for crimes committed on their territory. International search takes into account this principle to ensure the effectiveness of justice and the recognition of the sovereignty of each state.
- The two-stage principle. It provides that a person should be tried at two levels – national and international. First, there is a judicial review in the country that submitted the search request, and then, if necessary, an international trial or extradition may take place.
- The principle of bilaterality. This principle indicates the need for cooperation and agreement between two states to carry out an international search. Partnerships and arrangements between countries play an important role in the execution of search and detention decisions.
Mechanisms of international search
- International orders. International warrants issued by INTERPOL or by agreement between states are used to initiate an international search. These documents contain information about the crime, the culprit and the need to search for him outside the state.
- Extradition. It is the process of transferring a person suspected of committing a crime from one state to another for trial. Usually, this process is based on agreements between states and takes into account the two-step principle.
- The international police organization INTERPOL plays an important role in coordinating international investigations. Its database and cooperation system allow states to share information and submit tracing requests.
- Other international mechanisms. In addition to INTERPOL and extradition, there are other international mechanisms, such as the European Order System or the system of agreements between individual countries.
Challenges and modern trends
- Violation of human rights. During an international search, it is important to avoid human rights violations such as wrongful detention or excessive use of force.
- Problems of extradition. The existence of different legal systems and norms can lead to difficulties in the extradition process, especially when the crime behind the charge is not recognized by both states.
- Privacy and security. Maintaining confidentiality during an international search is an important aspect as there can be a large number of parties involved in the process.
- Innovations in international search. The use of modern technologies, such as facial recognition systems and big data analytics, can facilitate and speed up the international search process.
The role of technology in international search
- Modern technologies of big data analysis make it possible to identify complex patterns and connections between individuals, which helps to identify criminal groups and criminal networks.
- With the help of machine learning algorithms, models can be developed to predict possible locations or actions of suspected persons, which contributes to effective search planning.
- Facial recognition systems and biometric technologies allow quick identification of persons based on photo and video materials.
- Linguistic analysis algorithms help in understanding and translating information from different languages, which is important for working in conditions of international cooperation.
- Cyber specialists use digital forensic analysis techniques to detect traces of crimes on the Internet, which helps in the investigation of cybercrimes and the identification of individuals.
- Because intelligence data is sensitive, protecting against cyber threats and cyber-attacks is an extremely important aspect of ensuring privacy and preventing information leakage.
- Geolocation technologies, such as global positioning systems and data from mobile operators, make it possible to determine the location of individuals, which is important for accurate tracing.
- The use of satellite images and cartography helps to visualize and analyze the geographical aspects of the search.
International wanted persons remain a key element in the global fight against crime. Its development and modern technologies provide law enforcement agencies with an effective tool to ensure justice and punish criminals, regardless of where they hide. By maintaining a balance between security, human rights and justice, international investigation becomes an integral part of the legal system aimed at maintaining world order and security.
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