The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the fight against corruption is gaining popularity around the world. The desire to use modern approaches to combating corruption, fueled by the rapid development of ICT, has led to new interesting solutions.
Today, ICT can be actively used to promote integrity and integrity in the provision of public services, in strengthening the public reporting system, in public procurement and in public finance management.
In addition, ICTs are often used to provide the public with effective access to information on government financial activities, to promote public participation in decision-making processes, to provide the public with various information activities to promote an atmosphere of intolerance to corruption, and to raise awareness of anti-corruption services and opportunities. anonymous reporting of corruption.
An important condition for the effective use of ICT in the anti-corruption sphere is the creation of an information environment using the Internet, including improving computer literacy, improving the security of ICT infrastructure, providing free high-speed Internet.
According to a study by the International Telecommunication Union “ICT Development Index“, the most advanced countries in terms of public access to IT technologies and skills in the practical application of these technologies are Finland, Denmark, Great Britain, Canada, USA, South Korea, Austria, Estonia and Singapore.
It should be noted that the countries in the first third of this ranking have a high degree of openness and transparency of public administration, which in turn leads to the minimization of corruption offenses. The problem of modernization of public administration in these countries is solved through the active use of the potential of information and innovative technologies.
Consider some examples of successful use of ICT in combating corruption in foreign countries.
Of particular interest is the experience of using information technology in the fight against corruption in South Korea – the program “OPEN“, launched in 1999. The program allowed citizens to control the process of consideration of their applications by civil servants via the Internet. As soon as a citizen submits an application, for example, for a building permit, the staff of the relevant department places information about this application on the “OPEN“ website. Through the Internet, citizens can find out in real time whether their application is properly registered, who specifically deals with this issue, when to expect permission, and if the request is not granted, for what reasons.
Thanks to this program, citizens can at any time follow the progress of consideration of documents on their application. The system of online control over the consideration of citizens ‘appeals “OPEN“, transparency that ensures in the work of the city administration, prevents unnecessary red tape or unfair consideration by officials of citizens’ cases, allows citizens to monitor how issues of permission or sanctions are resolved in one or another case in cases where corruption is most likely, and to protest if any violation is noticed. Thus, the ensured transparency of the administration creates the preconditions for the eradication of corruption.
The program clearly identifies areas of life in which civil projects should be considered openly, because it is in them, as it turned out after research, the most characteristic of the spread of corrupt practices.
- it is housing and construction;
- construction works;
- the environment;
- culture and tourism;
- industry and economy;
- urban planning;
- sanitation and social security;
Singapore is an example of the effective use of ICTs in the fight against corruption. Due to the active use of IT technologies, Singapore has significantly reduced the state apparatus. Thus, terminals for receiving electronic services and reference information are installed in frequently visited establishments, and state service portals are maximally integrated with mobile devices to facilitate the procedure of interaction with the state.
As the experience of foreign countries shows, the use of modern information technologies in the fight against corruption provides an opportunity to create a transparent and open system of management decisions with high anti-corruption resistance. It also simplifies rules and procedures. The use of ICT eliminates intermediaries, depersonalizes and standardizes the service delivery process, reduces opportunities for abuse of power and other opportunities for corruption. Computerized procedures make it possible to monitor decisions and actions, and thus are an additional deterrent to corruption. The use of ICT provides increased access to information and empowerment of citizens. Publishing government information creates accountability by giving it access to citizens.