At the present stage of social transformations and state-building in Ukraine, the need for an effective, efficient anti-corruption policy becomes especially important.
An effective means of preventing corruption, which is practiced in other countries, is the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to achieve maximum openness in the activities of public authorities and their officials, transparency and clarity of procedures for making and making management decisions; application of simple, accessible to every citizen and at the same time effective mechanisms of accountability of public authorities and their officials and control over the activities of civil society.
A high level of ICT development has been achieved in Estonia. All Estonian citizens who have reached the age of 15 are ID card holders. With its help, they are authorized in public and private Internet services and receive a personal e-mail address through which they communicate with government agencies and private enterprises, receive all necessary information, make inquiries, use Internet banking and all other electronic services. This card replaces both the passport and the driver’s license, and with its help it is possible to solve all questions with the state, without leaving the house. E-school, e-police and e-medicine work in the same way.
An example of the successful use of information and communication tools in the prevention of corruption is Finland, where corruption in public authorities has not existed as a phenomenon for a long time. At the same time, this country continues to work on the development and implementation of new services for citizens that ensure a high level of transparency of public authorities and their communicative interaction with the public.
In Finland, services have been developed that ensure the direct participation of citizens in the management of public affairs using ICT. These include, in particular, five new services:
One of the most corrupt areas is public procurement and the use of public funds. World experience shows that an effective tool to combat corruption in this area is to translate these operations into electronic form.
Anti-corruption tools for this are special web portals, where relevant information on the use of funds can be accessed in an interactive and user-friendly form and provides an opportunity to conduct a more thorough analysis of budget execution and use of public funds.
Portals that focus on transparency and visualization of information on government spending have almost every developed country. For example, the portal “ Where Does My Money Go? “ allows citizens and other interested UK organizations to receive information on government spending in a clear, visualized form. In Brazil, there is a “ Transparency Portal “, which helps to increase the efficiency of public administration and allows citizens to monitor the distribution of public funds and monitor this process, and in South Korea created an integrated budget information system d-Brain, which covers all budget operations of the state budget. related, inter alia, to the formation and implementation of the budget, management of treasury operations, etc.
An example of the use of ICT is the ipaidabribe.com corruption reporting website. Through this website, citizens can report the nature, number, structure, types, location, frequency and significance of actual acts of corruption. During the operation of the site, a large number of complaints were processed, charges were brought and criminal cases were opened. Also through this site, citizens can report positive experiences of communication with honest civil servants, have the opportunity to leave feedback on the quality of work of a government agency.
As the experience of foreign countries shows, the use of information technology eliminates intermediaries, depersonalizes and standardizes the process of providing services, reduces opportunities for abuse of power and other opportunities for corruption. Computerized procedures make it possible to monitor decisions and actions, and thus are an additional deterrent to corruption. The use of ICT provides increased access to information and empowerment of citizens. Publishing government information creates accountability by giving it access to citizens.